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Objectives of the QBD

The Biological Qualification of the Donation (QBD) has several objectives:

  • Ensure the safety of the recipient with respect to risks related to immuno-haematological compatibility and blood-borne diseases

  • Participate in informing the donor when anomalies or particularities are highlighted during his analyzes

  • Conduct investigations of abnormal donor results

  • Participate through the biological results collected in public health missions (epidemiology)

Ensuring recipient safety
The QBD laboratory carries out several analyzes on the samples. It is divided into 3 sectors:
  • Viral Serology Laboratory (Communicable Disease (TD))
  • The viral genomic diagnosis laboratory (VGD)
  • The donor immunohematology laboratory (IHD)

The purpose of the serology laboratory is to search for the antibodies produced by the donor following contact with a pathogenic agent (HIV-1 & 2, HCV, HBV, HTLV I+II, syphilis, Malaria, Chagas) and the antibodies anti-HBs. These antibodies are sought by immunoenzymatic tests (ELISA, IF, Western-Blot, EIA, etc.).

The DGV laboratory searches for HIV-1 virus RNA, HCV RNA and HBV DNA by molecular biology. Analyzes are also carried out to look for the HBs antigen. All these analyzes are complementary to the search for antibodies. DGV reduces the serological window for HIV by 50% (the window goes from 22 days for a serum test to 11 days), HCV by 90% (the serological window goes from 58 days to 9 days) and HBV by 45% (the serological window goes from 50 days to 25 days). The reduction of the serological window is of great importance, because it makes it possible to increase the safety of blood transfusions.
The IHD laboratory determines the blood groupings and the Rh Kell phenotype of the donors and carries out the search for anti-erythrocyte antibodies (RAE), hemolysins and hemoglobin.
All these laboratories work simultaneously, in order to obtain the results within 24 hours, and thus qualify the labile blood products that can be transfused. Along with the preparation, they constitute the second step in securing the blood transfusion after collection collection. They therefore make it possible to guarantee the absence of diseases transmissible by transfusion and known to date (within the detection limit of the tests).
Participate in donor information
When an anomaly is detected during the donation, the donor is immediately informed by a summons, in order to be informed by a doctor of his abnormal result. At the same time, all the products resulting from his donation are destroyed, and an investigation is carried out on the previous donations.
Carrying out surveys
When an anomaly is detected during the donation, a survey is carried out among the recipients of products from previous donations of the donor concerned. In fact, when the donor has positive serology, the recipients of previous donations are contacted to check whether they have contracted the virus detected in the donor. This step is delicate and must be carried out with the help of the medico-legal unit of the Blood Transfusion and Treatment Establishment, in the event that there is compensation according to the applicable regulations.
Public health missions
The results of all tests carried out on donors are analyzed and are a very important source of data for public health. They allow, for example, to see whether the number of viral diseases in donations is increasing or decreasing.
The serotheque from all the donors can also be used in the context of scientific research or during epidemiological studies. 
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